Fuel Injection Pump | Types | Working


fuel injection pump


Hello friends, welcome to all of you in another new post, today we will know what is fuel injection pump is and which type of engine it is used. And how does it work? So let’s know about the fuel injection pump without delay

Fuel Injection Pump F.I.P

The way a spark plug is used to ignite the fuel in petrol. Similarly, a fuel injection pump is used in a diesel engine. And it is also called F.I.P. The fuel injection pump is located between the fuel filter and the fuel injector. The fuel line is connected between the fuel injector pump and the injector. Also called a high-pressure line. Through these lines, the fuel reaches the engine cylinder. This fuel pump breaks the diesel into very fine particles in the form of smoke. And at the end of the compression stroke in the combustion chamber, the diesel is sprayed on the hot air. Due to this diesel gets burnt due to high pressure as soon as it comes in contact with air.


How many types of fuel injection pumps are there?

Several types of fuel pumps are used to deliver diesel. three of which are

Master Fuel Injection Pump –

A high-pressure pump is used in this. This is a plunger pump. Through this, diesel continues to go to the injectors at high pressure.

It is also called a constant pressure system. Because in this system, the same diesel pressure is maintained in each injector. And according to the firing sequence, each injector sprays diesel in the form of fine particles on time.

Individual injection system –

In modern times, it is mostly used in diesel engines. It is very simple and very good too. In this, there is a separate pump for the injector of each cylinder.

These pumps can be different. But in an engine with more than one cylinder, they live in a block line. For these, a separate camshaft is used in the pump itself.

All these pumps work like valves through their cams. This camshaft is driven by the timing gear. This pump is designed in this way. That it can control the difference between spray diesel as well as the start and end of spray by each injector


Distributor injection system –

A high-pressure pump is used in this system. By giving high pressure to the diesel, through the distributor, according to the firing sequence, it reaches all the injectors on time.


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Main parts of the fuel injection pump

delivery valve
valve spring
control rack
control sleeve

At the top of the fuel injection pump, there is a provision for connecting pipes to deliver diesel to the injectors. The cam is attached at the bottom. On top of which roller tappets are fitted. Through which the plunger rises up. The delivery valve is located at the top of the pump barrel. Which remains closed with the help of spring. And opens by diesel pressure. A control sleeve is fitted in the middle of the barrel.


What are the functions of a fuel injection pump?

During the compression stroke in a diesel engine, the air pressure increases tremendously due to compression. It can range from about 35 bar to 2000. And it can be different in different engines.

Like in olden times the pressure value of engines was less. But in today’s time, the pressure value of engines can be from 350 bar to 2000 bar.

Know that if the air pressure is around 350 bar just before burning then the diesel pressure must be higher than the air pressure to inject the diesel into the engine cylinder at that time.

Therefore, the pressure of the diesel is increased to send the diesel to the cylinder. And the fuel pump increases the diesel pressure up to 2000 bar.

The amount of fuel required by the engine according to its different speed and load like if the engine is overloaded. So fuel requires more fuel. And if the load is less then less fuel is required. Therefore, it is the job of the fuel injection pump to deliver the required amount of fuel.

The number of cylinders installed in the engine, in a similar situation, each cylinder requires the same amount of fuel. It is the function of the fuel injection pump to supply the same amount of fuel to each cylinder. Injecting fuel at the right time is called fuel injection timing.


If diesel is to be injected into a cylinder 15 degrees before the piston reaches T.D.C at the end of the compression stroke. So injection must happen at exactly this time if diesel spray does not happen at exactly this time. So the fuel doesn’t burn properly.


This refers to adjusting the fuel injection timing according to load and speed. Fuel injection should be 15 degrees before T.D.C. And now if the speed of the engine is increased then it is obvious.

The piston will move faster and the fuel will have less time to burn. In this case, the fuel will have to be injected earlier than 15 degrees. Diesel may have to be injected about 20 degrees to 45 degrees earlier depending on the engine speed. So according to the load and speed, the fuel injection pump works to set the timing.

You know what is the fuel injection pump. How many types are there? and how they work. And in which type of engine it is used.

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