Automotive Engine | an overview | Types

Hello readers, welcome to all of you in another post, do you also want to know about the automotive engine? What is an automotive engine how does it work? how many types are there? In this post, we will tell you about the automotive engine in detail. So let’s know what an automotive engine is. how it works

 

Automotive Engine

 an automotive engine is one such machine. Which converts chemical heat energy into mechanical energy. A mixture of fuel air is supplied to start the engine. When this mixture burns in the engine. So it generates heat  power.

The power turns the crankshaft in the engine.  then the power is converted into mechanical energy. Which is used in automobiles. also calls a heat engine.

automotive Engine definition

Heat engine means. Engine: Power is obtained by expanding the gases by thermal pressure in the cylinder.  that power is used by mechanical means in other works.

 

 

types of engine

Generally, there are two types of automotive engines according to the burning of fuel in the engine cylinder.

internal combustion engine
external combustion engine

But they are divided in many ways, let’s know about some automotive engines, one of which is

 

internal combustion engine

Internal combustion engine It is also commonly called an ic engine.  this is a type of heat engine. These automotive engines are now widely used. For example, this type of engine is used in vehicles  tractors engaged in transport work  in various machines.

In these automotive engines, heat is used to burn fuel such as petrol diesel oil,  gases in the cylinders. This causes a very strong blow to the pistons inside the automotive engine.

power is generated. In these, the fuel burns inside the engine itself. the heat generated from it gives power through the expansion of gases. That is why they are called ic engines or internal combustion engines.

 

External combustion engine

 External combustion engine This is a type of automotive engine. Which is rarely used at present.

In this type of automotive engine, the fuel combustion is outside the engine cylinder. accelerates the piston in the form of steam. The engine runs without noise.

Also called this E.C engine it is a part of the heat engine

 

External combustion engine facts

In today’s changing era, this type of engine is not used very much.

They are used in railway engines, thermal power stations,  some other places.

Apart from this, this type of automotive engine is also occasionally seen in some road roller

 

External combustion engine working

A boiler is used in these engines. by burning the fuel under this boiler, the water is heated at very high pressure. Which produces steam. the same steam pressure is applied to the piston head inside the cylinder.

Also, in these engines to get energy through heat, there is a system of burning the fuel outside the cylinder itself.

In which power is obtained by dispersing gases from excessive heat.

In an E.C engine, the piston is not directly connected to the connecting rod.

Rather a string box is used in it

So that it helps to stop the steam located in the cylinder  there is no leakage.

Cheap fuel is used in these types of engines.

External combustion engines include steam engines, Stirling engines,  steam turbines.

For example

A steam engine is a type of E.C engine, let’s know a little about it, works

A boiler is used in a steam engine. which generates steam.

The boiler remains full. A little ahead of the engine, a fire is lit using coal.

Which generates heat. this heat heats the boiler to form steam.

You all know that steam has a lot of power. Using which the engine is run.

All the steam gets stored in a cave called the Steam Dome.  there is a valve installed.

As soon as the valve opens. All the steam reaches the engine through the pipe.

The engine has a piston

Which मूव्स spins the wheel. The steam moves this piston. Which gives speed to the engine.

What is the difference between an E.C engine  an I.C engine?

Do you know what is the difference between an E.C engine  an I.C engine, let us know what is the difference between them –

I.C Engine  

This type of engine is cheaper than an E.C engine. E.C engines are expensive.
They can also make of low power mutually. IN engine power is more.
The fuel in these engines burns inside the cylinder. Fuel burns out in these engines.
Fuel efficiency is high in the I.C engines. E.C engine has less fuel efficiency.
The fuel tank in these engines is relatively small. fuel in E.C engine

It requires a large space.
In the I.C engine, the COMBUSTION pressure temperature are very high. In an E.C engine, the working pressure of heat  steam is less.
The engine can be started quickly. The engine takes longer to start.

These are some of the differences between an I.C engine  an E.C engine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on fuel

diesel engine

 Diesel is used as fuel in this type of engine. It is a type of internal combustion engine  is also commonly called a compression ignition engine because it is ignited by compressing pure air into the engine cylinder  spraying fuel on it.

In this type of engine, thick oil is used as fuel. Which is name Diesel after the inventor. Engines that run on this oil are often called diesel engines. Neither carburetor is us in this engine. Nor is the fuel ignite by giving a spark with the help of a battery. The following are some things in this

In this, only the high temperature of pure air compress in the engine cylinder is used to burn the fuel.
In the engine cylinder where the air remains extremely hot. fuel is injected directly

What is the difference between 2-stroke  4-stroke engines?

 

who invented the diesel engine?

In about 1900, Dr. Rudolf Diesel calculate that if a cylinder is pressed with a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch. So the compressed air rises to 38 degrees.

 if any oil is sprayed on this suppressed air, it will burn. This discovery led to the invention of the diesel engine.  this engine was named after Dr. Rudolf Diesel.

 

diesel engine working

The air pressure remains the same in it. Almost all these parts are almost the same as the spark ignition engines. The only difference is in the fuel supply. The diesel engine also works on the principle of suction, compression power exhaust stroke.

Compression in a diesel engine is almost the same as in petrol engines. But in this engine, the compression ratio for high pressure  heat ranges from 1:12 to 1:22. at such a high ratio when the air is compress

So the pressure in the compression chamber ranges from about 380 lb party square to 550 lb party square inch from the engine pressure due to the pressure on the air the temperature ranges from 660 to 800.  this temperature is much higher than the burning temperature of diesel.

Diesel burns only at a temperature of 300 to 350. Diesel oil is sprayed through an injector at a very high pressure of about 1500 lb to 2500 lb party square inch.

This fuel is connected to the pump. Diesel oil burns when it comes in contact with hot air. Due to this, the gaseous gases spread.  at that time the pressure of those gases goes from about 700 pounds to 950 pounds per square inch.

Due to this, the piston gets पुशेड। due to the power received by the piston, the crankshaft and flywheel are rotated. And this power is further transmitted.

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4-stroke diesel engine
1. suction stroke

This is called the first stroke. In this, the inlet valve of the engine cylinder remains open.  the fresh mixture of diesel  air enters the cylinder of the engine. In this case, the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C. When the piston reaches the B.D.C, suction is produced in the cylinder.  the clean air from the inlet manifold is filled into the cylinder.

2 . compression stroke

In this, the piston move from B.D.C to T.D.C.  in this case the inlet valve which is open at the time of suction stroke gets close. When the piston moves up to T.D.C, the air coming into the cylinder is pressurized.  that air does not find a way to escape anywhere. So the air gets compressed  becomes very hot.

4-stroke diesel engine

3. power stroke

COMBUSTION  The temperature of the compressed air in the chamber is much higher than the burning temperature of diesel. At this time diesel is sprayed through the injector with the help of a fuel ejection pump. Diesel burns when it comes in contact with hot air.

the forged gases expand,   the gases expand,  piston gets pushed. piston walks from T.D.C to B.D.C.  it is from this power that the crankshaft rotates through another. from which power is obtained. this power is further transmitted. This power supplied to the piston moves the crankshaft flywheel.

4. exhaust stroke

This is the last stroke of the piston. The mixture burns in the combustion chamber of the engine after the power stroke. It is taken out of the engine. In this stroke, the exhaust valve opens before the piston reaches B.D.C. The piston moves back from B.D.C to T.D.C.  in the cylinder,  burn gases exit through the exhaust valve through the exhaust manifold through the silencer.

In this way, all the strokes cycle of the engine are complete in a diesel engine. Power is obtained from a diesel engine. Diesel engines are used a lot.  apart from automobiles, it is also used in other places.

Depending on ignition

 

compression ignition engine

 

This is a type of Internal Combustion engine. Diesel crude oil is used in this type of engine. In this, the fuel is compressed burned. That’s why they are called compression ignition engines. In these types of engines, only clean air is pressed into the cylinder at such a high ratio.

that its temperature rises too much. As soon as diesel or crude oil enters this hot air, it burns fast, due to which heat is generated.  by the expansion of gases by heat, power is obtained. In these engines, power torque is obtained more than speed. they are using more in heavy vehicles. For example, in trucks  or buses, these types of engines are used more where the power requirement is more. Also, these are used in almost all vehicles. These engines are costlier in price than petrol engines.

Compression ignition engine mainly consists of the following

1. diesel engine

2 . gasoline engine

 

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Spark ignition engine

This is also a type of INTERNAL COMBUSTION  engine. Because in this the fuel is lit by giving a spark meaning a spark of fire. Petrol or gas is used as fuel in these types of engines.  these are called spark ignition engines. In these, the mixture of petrol air is first pressed.

then that suppressed mixture is ignited by giving a spark through the spark plug.  heat is obtained by burning. Due to this gases expand power is obtained from the expansion of gases. In today’s era, this type of engine is used a lot. These engines are cheaper in price than diesel engines.

1. petrol engine

2 . crude oil engine

 

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Depending bicycle

 

1. four-stroke engine

 

Many scientists from all over the world, from 1838 to 1862, were successful to some extent in making early engines by experimenting with their own type.

 after that, in the year 1878, a German scientist Auto invent this theory, in this theory, if in general terms, then the suppressed mixture of petrol air is burned.

 

 

 the engine gets power once in two revolutions of the crankshaft in the engine. 

In other words, in this theory, there is one power stroke in the four strokes of the pistons in the cylinders.

Also, the piston has two-stroke in one revolution of the crankshaft, this theory is called the “auto principal of the four-stroke cycle”.

The four strokes of the posts in this entire cycle are one beneficial stroke. The stroke by which the engine receives power.

 the other three-stroke engines complete the cycle.  these strokes are accomplished by rotating the flywheel at the time of the power stroke.

 

4 Stroke Engine Working

 

Four-stroke engine has the following four strokes

suction stroke

In this stroke, the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C. At this time the inlet valve opens. through that route, the mixture of fuel-air goes into the cylinder. When the piston moves to B.D.C in the cylinder, there is an empty space in the cylinder. In which the mixture of air-fuel is filled.

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compression stroke

This is the second stroke of the engine. In this, the piston moves from B.D.C to T.D.C.  at this point the inlet valve that is open at the time of the suction stroke is closed.

In this situation, due to the movement of the piston to T.D.C, there is a lot of pressure on the mixture fill in the cylinder.  the mixture does not get a way to exit the piston. Because both the valves are closed it gets burned in the COMBUSTION  chamber made in the cylinder head.

 

power or firing stroke

This is the third stroke of the piston. In this, the mixture burned in the cylinder is burning. An explosion occurs in this process. gases expand with great force. This is where power comes from. by the expansion of gases

 

exhaust stroke

This is the fourth stroke. the final stroke is completed in one cycle through the piston. In this, the burnt gases are taken out of the cylinder.

The gases trapped by the exhaust valve have released the piston again moves from B.D.C to T.DC. The burning inert gases of the cylinder are pressurized by the movement of the piston.

That’s why those gases are exhaust valves. They come out through the exhaust manifold silencer.

 

valve timing

These valves are mostly located in the head of the engine. Inlet valve  exhaust valve In the engine cycle the inlet valve should open at the T.D.C of the piston at the time of the suction stroke  the exhaust valve should open at B.D.C during the exhaust stroke

Similarly, the inlet valve should be closed at B.D.C after the suction stroke is over the exhaust valve should be closed at T.D.C after the exhaust stroke is complete.

The inlet valve opens at approximately 1800 from T.D.C to B.D.C. the exhaust valve also opens from B.D.C to T.D.C at 1800  only. These are only theoretical figures, but in reality, the inlet valve opens a few degrees before the suction stroke begins.

 the exhaust valve also opens a few degrees before the exhaust stroke begins.  remains open a few degrees in the suction stroke.

Advantages of pre-post-opening of inlet valves – Pre-opening of the valve can reduce suction stroke.

valve timing in the engine

The more fresh mixture enters the cylinder over time. At high engine speed, it takes some time for the timing valve to open.

Even if it is the shortest time in the suction stroke when the inlet valve opens before the suction stroke begins the longer opening. When the mixture of petrol air comes in, motion is created in the inlet manifold.  because of this, the mixture keeps on coming.

Advantages of Exhaust Valve Pre-Post-Opening – There are advantages to having this valve open for a longer period of time. At the time of the exhaust stroke, as many gases as possible can come out of the cylinder.

Opening the exhaust valve at the time of the power stroke does not affect engine power. Because due to the expansion of gases, the piston is pushed only once.

 later there is no power left in those gases. Only by opening the exhaust valve a few degrees at the time of the suction stroke, the fresh mixture also comes out along with the burnt gases of the cylinder. a very small amount is waste.

 

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2 stroke engine

Friends, in addition to the internal combustion engine four-stroke, there is another principle in the motor vehicle. Which is called the 2-stroke cycle principle. Let us tell you that long after the invention of the four-stroke engine

Sir doctor Clark invented the 2-stroke engine in about 1980. In this system, the four strokes of the engine running (suction stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, exhaust stroke) are complete in just two strokes of the piston.

in each revolution of the crankshaft, the engine gets power. Valves are not used for inlet exhaust in these engines.  the function of valves is finished by three ports built into the cylinder walls.

Parts Of Two Stroke

1. inlet port

2 . exhaust port

3. transfer port

These ports are close on Schulte in the calendar when the piston moves from top to bottom  bottom to top respectively. Crankcase air is made in 2 stroke engine. The fuel mixture first comes into the crankcase itself.

 to some extent, it suppresses this place. currently, some such engines use a separate cylinder. In this, the fuel mixture also reaches before compression.

Apart from this, by using the additional supercharger, there is a provision to get more mixture inside the cylinder when the piston moves from the bottom B.D.C to the top T.D.C in the cylinder.

So in that stroke, it completes the suction stroke  compression stroke together. when the engine is firing when the fuel is burning, then the piston goes down to the B.D.C. So the remaining two-stroke, the power stroke  the exhaust stroke, are complete.

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How does a two-stroke engine work?

 

First Stroke: Suction  Compression –

In this arrangement, the piston moves from below B.D.C to above T.D.C. The inlet port is opened by moving the piston up. This creates a gap in the crankcase.

 to fill this space, the fuel mixture is pumped into the crankcase. Thus the function of the suction stroke is complete. Moving over the piston, the mixture from the transfer port in the cylinder above the piston is also pressed into the combustion chamber.

Because the transfer port exhaust port is close to the piston there is no way for the mixture to escape. In this way, the work of compression stroke is complete in the same stroke of the piston.

 

Second Stroke Power  Exhaust –

In this, the mixture burn in the combustion chamber is ignited, gases expand as the mixture burn.  the piston gets pushed this pushes the piston with power

By which the piston turns the crankshaft the flywheel. the engine gets power, at this time the piston moves from T.D.C to B.D.C. completes its power stroke.

when the piston moves to B.D.C, the exhaust port opens. the forged gases come out through the silencer.  the last stroke of the engine cycle is also complete in the same stroke.

 at the same time, the transfer port made just in front of the exhaust port also opens.  coming down of the piston puts pressure on the mixture of the crankcase. this mixture enters the cylinder for the next cycle of the engine through the open transfer port.

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What is a stroke

The total distance traveled by a piston in the cylinder of an engine when T.D.C means (top dead center) from the upper limit to B.D.C means (bottom dead center) to the lower limit. The same is called a stroke of the piston. In an engine, one piston completes four strokes. which are the following –

suction stroke
compression stroke
power stroke
exhaust stroke

These four strokes are called one cycle of the engine. By doing all these tasks, one cycle of the engine means the cycle is complete. Because these four strokes are completed by piston only. So engine cycles are of two types on the basis of piston strokes

two stroke bicycle

four-stroke bicycle

What is B.D.C

When the piston travels to the lowest position of the cylinder at the time of its stroke. It is called B.D.C means Bottom Dad Center.

What is T.D.C

When the piston travels up to the top surface of the cylinder during its stroke. That place is called T.D.C mean Top Dad Center.

It is a form of an engine in which the engine is lit outside the engine cylinder rather than inside the engine cylinder. 

Do you want to know what is External Combustion Engine? how does it work? So let’s know about it without delay

Some engine facts

1 .        The engine has more power.

2 .       But it takes more time to make steam to start the engine. also, it takes longer to stop

3 .        it has a low fuel efficiency

4 .        the space for burning fuel in the engine is wide.

5 .        In this type of engine the fuel burns outside the cylinder.

6 .         In such engines, the working pressure temperature order of steam is low.

7 .        External combustion engines require more space to store the fuel.

8 .       These engines are very expensive.

9 .       These types of engines are also very big in size.

 

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Engine parts

In this post, we will talk about internal combustion engines,  learn about all the parts of diesel petrol engines. An engine works as a unit. generate power is made of many parts. Each part has its own function. Know about these parts which are the following parts of the engine

cylinder head

The cylinder head is the top part of the automotive engine. make of cast iron. But some engines, are also made of aluminum steel, which reduces the load of the engine to some extent. The cylinder head itself closes the cylinder by covering it from above. The combustion chamber is made in the head itself. in which the fuel burns.

Cylinders in which valves are mounted on the cylinder head where the valve guide is fit. The cylinder head is made very precisely carefully.

Because in addition to many valves in it, subtle passages have to be made to bring water outside the combustion chamber. Which helps to keep the engine cool by reaching the water. 

The surface of the cylinder head is very flat. Which is connected to the cylinder block through nut bolts. care to be taken at the place where it is connected. There should be no leakage of fuel or cooling water.

 

cylinder block

This is the middle part of the automotive engine part. this cylindrical hollow cylinder is made of one or more cylinders.  you just learn that the cylinder head is installed. a gasket is fit between them.

which prevents leakage. the cylinder block is connected to the oil sump at the bottom. closes. It is make from gray cast iron in which some other elements like iron 95%, carbon 2.2% silicon 1.2% phosphorus 0.86%, sulfur 0.13% manganese 0.64% are add

Due to this, it becomes anti-heat. So that wear is also minimized. It is in this cylindrical hollow cylinder that the piston completes its stroke. Water jackets oil galleries are also made around it for water-cooling engines in which side valves are installed. They have to make room for the valve sheet valve guide for the valves.

oil sump

This is the lowest part of the engine. to cover the cylinder block with dust, it remains a block from below. It is filled with lubrication oil. also, known as an oil chamber.

 make by pressing a sheet of aluminum alloy. A drain plug is made in it. Due to this, the oil can be removed in time. It is from the oil sump that the moving parts of the engine get lubrication.

 

piston

The piston is connected to the gudgeon pin by means of a connecting rod. moves from T.D.C to B.D.C in the cylinder. The suction, compression, power,  exhaust all four strokes in the engine are completed by the piston itself.

When a power stroke occurs in the engine. At that time the piston gets a big blow. That’s why the piston is made like this. Who can bear this shock? It should have some properties like –

The piston should be light in weight  at the same time be soft
The piston should not be prone to breakage; the piston should not be of large volume by heating.
It should be smooth there should be no sound while moving.
It should not rust should be a good conductor of
don’t be more expensive

Pistons are mostly made of aluminum alloy. At the same time, some engines are also made of cast iron semi-steel.

 

connecting rod

It is connected to the piston  the crankshaft.  by moving the piston from T.D.C to B.D.C, the crankshaft rotates. The connecting rod is somewhat oblique. It is very strong.

Because a huge blow of the piston takes place on it. It is made of cast iron aluminum alloy. It’s one end is big one end is small.

The small end is called the small end bearing the big end is called the big end bearing, the small end is crushed with the help of a gudgeon pin.

 the big end is made of two parts. Those are fit to the crank pin of the crankshaft by means of connecting rod bolts.

 

crankshaft

This is a very important part of any automotive engine. It is connected to the piston through a connecting rod.  when the piston move] from T.D.C to B.D.C. So the crankshaft also rotates.

converts the rotating motion into rotary motion. This is the fastest-rotating part of the engine. It is crook in texture. There is usually a lot of load on it.

So it construction very strong. It is made from drop-forged steel by steel forging. It is made up of many metals. which are below

crankshaft material

Copper 1.60 to 2..2
Carbon 1.40 to 1.65
Manganese 0.60 to 0.81
Sulfur 0.59
Phosphorus 0.9
Chromium 0.46 to 0.49
Silicon 0.86 to 1.11

There are two types of bearings on the crankshaft, the big end bearing the main end bearing where the big end bearing fits. It is called the crank pin the place where the end bearing fits. He is calling Crank General.

 

some other parts of the engine

camshaft
timing gear
flywheel
engine valve
overhead valve arrangement
valve spring
valve guide
valve tappet
push rod
inlet manifold
exhaust manifold

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Wankel engine

In the traditional internal engine, a large number of parts were interconnected. This increases the temperature of the engine more.  at the same time, its weight is also more.

The engine itself has to expend more energy to run. Scientists made a lot of efforts to improve it, as a result of which a German scientist Flex Wenkel invented a new type of engine in 1954.

Which we know as the Wankel engine. In this engine, the rotor located body rotated. Due to this the compression gas leaked. Over time, many scientists made many improvements to it.

In which a scientist named Faraday give it the form of a Wankel engine. At present, this engine is successfully used in cars in many countries.

 

wenkel engine working

The Wankel engine also works in the same way as the four-stroke. But it does not use the same piston, crankshaft, or connecting rod as other engines.

Rather, a circular rotor of the shape of a triangle is used in it. It rotates in the oval chamber of the rotor. There are gears on the outer inner sides of this rotor.

The rotor consists of three lobe chambers. which meet the wall of the chamber. Kalinga chambers are outside the chamber. The engine is cool by this water cooling.

Three spaces are made between the rotor. walls in the chamber.  in these places only suction, compression, power,  exhaust actions are finished, let’s know a little more about them.

 

Wankel engine Cycle

 

Suction – During the suction stroke, the rotor rotates clockwise. When the rotor lobe approaches the inlet port. So the inlet port is open. at that place, partial zero arises.  to complete it, a mixture of fuel comes through the carburetor.

Compression –  inlet port is closed due to further rotation of the rotor. the mixture is pressed to the next position through the rotor. This completes the compression stroke.

The spark in the power-suppress mixture is given off by the spark plug. Due to this the mixture burns. then the gases expand. Due to the expansion of gases, the rotor gets a push. then power is generated.

Exhaust – When the rotor gets power, it starts rotating. With which the exhaust port opens. With the push of the rotor, burnt gases come out of the chamber. Similarly, the rotor keeps rotating. the engine keeps running.

 

Conclusions

In this post, you learned what is Automotive Engine. How does an automotive engine work?  what are the types of automotive engines? Hope you got to learn something from this post, if you found this post informative, then share this post with others as well. Suggestions related to the post please send us in the comment box

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